Fasting, feasting and festivities of Gaura

Western Nepal came alive this week to celebrate its festival of womanhood
Sewa Bhattarai in Darchula
September 6, 2018

The buses to DarchulaBaitadiDoti or Dadelhura were all packed last week for the annual Gaura Festival of womanhood, celebrated in Western Nepal, and wherever people from the west of Nepal live. 

Across the districts of Far Western Nepal, towns are deserted and villages are abuzz with women engaged in weeklong fasting, feasting and revelry. This religious festival has deep agrarian roots, and celebrates the closes ties women have to the land and their crops.  

Saraswati Bhatta is shaping an image of the Goddess Gaura from rice stalks and decorating it like a bride with a red dress and jewelry. The doll god is then treated like a woman visiting her maternal home for her family’s pampering.

Gaura is another name for Gauri, Shiva’s consort. Unlike Tij, which is marked on 14 September in the rest of Nepal, the Gaura Festival is more ritualistic with women soaking grains, fasting and then eating the sprouts. Unlike Tij, on the main day the men fast too until their wives’ puja ends.

A woman throws down her walking stick to join hands with other women and sing along. All pics: BIKRAM RAI

But like Tij, Gaura is essentially a festival of, by and for women. Gaura songs are performed at predetermined times encapsulating the lifestyle and values of the entire community here in the remote mountains of western Nepal. The songs are about the courtship of Gaura and Maheswor (Siva and Parvati for easterners), a woman’s experience of childbirth, and many other social events. 

The lyrics outline social customs like the dates of festivals, and behaviour expected from men and women. Some songs describe which food is found in what season, and even where to find water. The festival serves as an elaborate information and communication system set in song long before mass media served that purpose. The songs instill a knowledge of roles, values, and social mores, and help people feel rooted in the community. 

The Gaura platform still gives women in a society steeped in patriarchy a rare chance to voice their perspective and provide valuable insight into women’s lives and thoughts. On the fourth day of the festival, women dance with the image of Gaura and send her off to her husband’s home, singing songs of bereavement. 

However, the Gaura Festival, like Tij, while allowing women to let off steam hand serve an emancipating role, also establishes the gender status quo, instructing women them about their place in society.

Read also: Songs of our past, Amar Gurung

 

Ganga Dhami, 75, in traditional jewellery that includes necklace made of British East India Company coins.

The festival is followed by popular mela, and people from all over the region congregate here in Malikarjun of Darchula situated amidst lush mountains above the clouds. Food stalls and shops line the site, damaha players strike drum beats rousing people with deeply devotional music. The strong feeling of community is enhanced by women in traditional clothes and jewelry who do slow walk-dances while singing in circles for hours.  

“Both men and women sing songs of local histories and epic poems, and express their feelings spontaneously, this might seem like just entertainment, but it is also a way of preserving and passing down our history,” says Mohan Dhami, an expert of local culture. 

Despite its continuing popularity, the significance of Gaura in communicating the spirit of community is losing out to modern lifestyles with mobility and mass communication. However, it still carries a strong sense of identity for the people of Western Nepal wherever they may live.

Read also: Re-inventing Tij, Mallika Aryal

Songs of rebellion, Smriti Basnet

Women hold hands for circle dances before making an image of Gaura from rice stalks, in Rijpala of Baitadi.
Rice god dolls are draped in bridal finery.
Women take turns to hold the image of Gaura on their heads, with everyone singing and dancing.
A priest at the breaking of the fast after women eat only one meal a day during the five days of the Gaura Festival.
Women celebrate around the bedecked image of Gaura in Darchula, on the day of Athewali. Pic: Santosh Kottari
Women from several neighbouring villages gather at Malikarjun temple, Darchula.
A man plays the damaha drum at Malikarjun Temple.
A woman makes her way home through a dangerous landslide after the celebration at Malikarjun temple, Darchula.

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