First and foremost, we need to reinvent public transport, which is under the chokehold of private cartels. Its unreliability is a primary reason why so many people gravitate towards private vehicles.
Evidence from European cities has shown that increasing access to public transport systems, bicycle lanes and ride-sharing technology (think Tootle and Pathao) has reduced car ownership rates. When there is a viable alternative to private vehicle ownership, residents are more than willing to make the switch.
For instance, a study done in Copenhagen found that extending the metro line to its suburban regions decreased car ownership by 2-3% in the city. Nepal can similarly develop commuter bus routes as an alternative for private vehicles and create the same effect.
Public transport also reduces waste heat because of fewer vehicles on the roads. Nationalising and regulating public transport system, and creating new and reliable inter-city routes make urban areas more liveable as well as decrease carbon burden of vehicle ownership.
Cities can also be restructured so that most people are a walk away from hospitals, drinking water supply and vegetable markets. In times of emergency, many people in Nepal need to travel an incredible distance just to get proper medical attention, even in urban areas.
In absence of zoning laws which segregates parts of the city into residential, industrial, business, more and more peri-urban regions in the outskirts of Kathmandu have been converted into housing plots, further decimating green spaces.
These laws not only help control the sprawl of the city by preventing unplanned development, but also ensure residents are close to essential services and public transport networks.