The region around Lumbini is an important wildlife habitat, but is facing an imminent threat because of increases in industrial pollution, urbanisation and mechanised farming.
A World Heritage Site associated with Lord Buddha, Lumbini has a diversity of farm-dependent biodiversity and is designated as an important Bird Area by Bird Life International. The fields and river channels provide an important habitat for many species and serve as a corridor for animal movement.
The farms are studded with oxbow lakes formed by Tarai rivers such as Danob, Tinau, Kothi and Telar which overflow into floodplains during the monsoon, but are mostly dry rest of the year. These lakes are important wetland habitats for many species of birds, amphibians, turtles, snakes and mammals, such as the Blue Bull antelopes.
Sarus Cranes, known as monogamous birds, hold a unique place among all other species in Lumbini, owing to their legendary connection with Lord Buddha when he was Prince Siddhartha of the Kingdom of Kapilvastu.